The best visibility of road markings is on asphalt roads
There is the safety requirement to have a contrast between the road surfacing and road markings. Asphalt roads show a better contrast between the surfacing and the road markings that are designed for safety considerations.
Roadway lighting can be specified using a number of metrics, including illuminance and luminance. Designs based on illuminance criteria refer to the amount of light that strikes the road surface. Luminance, which describes the amount of light reflected from a surface, is the amount of light that is seen by a driver. Historically, these two methods were independent of one another, with the luminance method being preferred.
However, a number of factors such as veiling luminance now can be included in calculations that allow designs to utilise both criteria. Veiling luminance compares the amount of light entering the eye from a luminary (having the effect of a veil) to the viewing angle between the point being observed on the roadway and a particular luminary. The addition of veiling luminance calculations reduces the risk of producing visibility glare with a lighting system.
Remark: Visibility of road markings is primarily a safety item, but can also be comfort.